Setting up an Apache HTTP server

Through some config file hacking, I have managed to set up an Apache HTTP server on my Macbook.  I did this so that I could test the full functionality of PHP.  Since PHP is one of the top most needed skills for freelance coding jobs, I figured it would be a good idea to learn it, and of course to use any of the features of PHP beyond just the core language, you need a web server.

Starting the Apache server is pretty easy.  All you have to do is type sudo httpd at the command line (assuming Apache is installed on your system, which I think it is for most Unix-based systems). It is recommended that you use apachectl as a frontend instead of using httpd directly, but I couldn’t seem to get this to work, so to start Apache I use sudo httpd and to stop it I use sudo killall httpd.

Now configuring the server to use PHP was somewhat more difficult, though still not too much so. First of all, for a server to use PHP, the PHP DOS initialization file needs to be present as /usr/local/lib/php.ini. After some digging around, I found the PHP ini file at etc/php.ini.default, so I just copied it (changing the filename of course).

The next thing I had to do was tell Apache to load the PHP module at startup. This is done by editing the file /etc/apache2/httpd.conf and uncommenting the appropriate code line.  It must be remembered that editing this file requires root privileges.

httpd.conf-uncomment

The appropriate line is


LoadModule php5_module libexec/apache2/libphp5.so

…Shown here already uncommented.

The next thing you have to do is find out what directory Apache is using to serve files to clients. This is determined by the DocumentRoot environment variable, and controlled by a <Directory> tag.

http.conf-root

Here we see that the server’s filesystem is rooted at /Library/WebServer/Documents. Of course this is Mac-specific, and the root will be different on other systems, and we can also change it, though I felt no need to.

If you title a document “index.html”, “index.php”, etc. then this will be the file that the client goes to when the user types your domain name without appending a path at the end. Also, if you title a document, say, my-pictures.html, the file extension can be omitted in the URL.

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The Slackware installation process

Recently I installed Slackware Linux.  In this blog post, I will detail the installation process I went through as well as my first impressions of the OS.

Slackware is a Linux distro that is supposed to be hard to install, hard to configure, and hard to use.  This is the main reason I wanted to install it – for the challenge and for geek cred.  Every time I engage in a major project like this, I learn something from the experience.  That’s why I love it.  This is especially true of the Slackware installation process, because Slackware makes you choose all of your packages and settings, and it also makes you partition the hard drive from the command line.  Now I was doing this whole installation without reading the guide, so I’m not sure if I did everything right, but I got the crucial parts of the operating system installed (still a few kinks to work out with graphics and networking, but otherwise it works fine).

The first step in the Slackware installation process is of course to download the ISO file, which can be found here. If you’re installing it directly to your computer, you can then burn the ISO to a DVD or Flash drive using a utility like dd. Since I was installing Slackware to a virtual machine, I skipped this step.

The next step is to insert the install disk (or ISO file) into your computer (or virtual machine) and boot from the disk. Then this screen appears:

Slackware 1

At this point I just typed Enter twice to skip the maintenance and keyboard selection steps.

Slackware 2

Then enter “root” to log in as root.

Slackware 3

The next step is to partition the drive.  There are four options at this stage: you can use either an MBR or a GPT partition table, and you can use either a full-screen, menu-driven program or a command-driven program.  The four programs are fdisk, cfdisk, gdisk, and cgdisk.

Here are is a screenshot of fdisk when you start it:

fdisk 1

And the commands for fdisk:

fdisk 2

Here is a screenshot of cfdisk, with three partitions set up:

cfdisk

Originally I had an 8 GB hard drive with 6 GB for the filesystem and 2 GB for the swap space, but I soon realized this was not enough, so I created a 20 GB hard drive.

When you partition the drive using an MBR scheme, you will have to decide what partition type to use for each partition.  A partition type is an 8-bit field in the MBR that denotes how the partition is used.  Here is the list of partition types as shown by fdisk:

fdisk 4

As you can see, a standard Linux partition has a partition type of 83h and a Linux swap partition has a partition type of 82h.

An explanation of the swap partition is probably in order, for those who are unfamiliar with Linux.  Basically, an operating system will run out of space in RAM and will swap pages of memory out to the hard drive.  Linux gives you two options for how this is done – either a swap file in the Linux partition, or a separate partition devoted to swapping.  The latter is generally more efficient.

Now we get to the fun part – actually installing Slackware.  In the setup directory in /usr/lib/setup you will see several executables.

setup

The program you want to run is setup. Type setup at the command prompt. You will then see this screen:

VirtualBox_Slackware 15

Go down to “TARGET” and press the Enter key.  The Slackware installer will now format your target partition with a Linux filesystem of your choice:

VirtualBox_Slackware 17

VirtualBox_Slackware 19

As you can see, there are several filesystems to choose from.  I chose Ext4 just because I’m not familiar with the non-Ext filesystems.

After formatting, you will be prompted for what media you are installing Slackware from.  This part is pretty straightforward.

VirtualBox_Slackware 21

Then you will be prompted to choose which categories of packages to install.  Each category is explained pretty well, so I feel no need to explain them further:

VirtualBox_Slackware 22

Then you choose what installation mode to use:

VirtualBox_Slackware CLI_27_05_2016_10_44_21

I chose newbie mode the first time I installed it (I had to install it multiple times before I got it right), because I wanted to understand each of the packages that were being installed.  Newbie mode isn’t recommended, though, because it takes a really long time, especially if you’re installing the X environment.

Here is a sample screenshot of the kernel being installed:

newbie install 7

The Slackware installer doesn’t tell you this, but what it’s actually doing is running the pkgtool utility. This is a menu-based package manager that provides an easy installation process for Slackware packages. Part of the Slackware philosophy is that the operating system should be complete out-of-the-box. This means that the initial installation comes with a lot more software than, say, Debian. This makes Slackware preferable in my opinion, because searching the Internet for drivers and other packages is a pain in the ass.

The next step is to configure the system. The installer runs several config programs for you. You can run these programs again at any time if you want to change the configuration of your system.

mouse_config

window_manager_config

network_config

When I finished with the installation and rebooted, I found that the Linux partition was unbootable.  I went to a Linux forum and asked about this problem, and they suggested using the chroot command to change the mount point for /dev/sda1 to my root. That worked.

There are still some problems with this installation that I haven’t worked out. There’s no network access. The X Window System can’t find my screen when I try to start it up. And the top utility makes it so my commands don’t echo. I will have to figure out how to solve these problems in the future.